Given the complexity of gender, it is not surprising that an increasing number of terms and phrases are developing to describe it. Below are some of the key terms you might encounter:
Biological/Anatomical Sex. The physical structure of one’s reproductive organs that is used to assign sex at birth. Biological sex is determined by chromosomes (XX for females; XY for males); hormones (estrogen/progesterone for females, testosterone for males); and internal and external genitalia (vulva, clitoris, vagina for assigned females, penis and testicles for assigned males). Given the potential variation in all of these, biological sex must be seen as a spectrum or range of possibilities rather than a binary set of two options.
Gender Identity. One’s innermost concept of self as male or female or both or neither — how individuals perceive themselves and what they call themselves. One’s gender identity can be the same or different than the sex assigned at birth. Individuals are conscious of this between the ages 18 months and 3 years. Most people develop a gender identity that matches their biological sex. For some, however, their gender identity is different from their biological or assigned sex. Some of these individuals choose to socially, hormonally and/or surgically change their sex to more fully match their gender identity.
Gender Expression. Refers to the ways in which people externally communicate their gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, haircut, voice, and other forms of presentation. Gender expression also works the other way as people assign gender to others based on their appearance, mannerisms, and other gendered characteristics. Sometimes, transgender people seek to match their physical expression with their gender identity, rather than their birth-assigned sex. Gender expression should not be viewed as an indication of sexual orientation.
Gender Role. This is the set of roles, activities, expectations and behaviors assigned to females and males by society. Our culture recognizes two basic gender roles: Masculine (having the qualities attributed to males) and feminine (having the qualities attributed to females). People who step out of their socially assigned gender roles are sometimes referred to as transgender. Other cultures have three or more gender roles.
Gender Binary. Refers to the (much criticized) idea of there being only two possible gender states — that of ‘Male’ and ‘Female’. The new field of ‘Queer Theory’ has a lot to say about the gender-binary.
Gender Normative/Cisgender. Refers to people whose sex assignment at birth corresponds to their gender identity and expression.
Transgender. Sometimes used as an umbrella to describe anyone whose identity or behavior falls outside of stereotypical gender norms. More narrowly defined, it refers to an individual whose gender identity does not match their assigned birth gender. Being transgender does not imply any specific sexual orientation (attraction to people of a specific gender.) Therefore, transgender people may additionally identify as straight, gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
Natal Gender/Felt Gender. These terms used to describe the gender (and sex) one was born into the ‘Natal Gender’ – verses the gender a Trans person feels themselves to be – the opposite gender or the ‘Felt Gender’. ‘Authentic Gender’ can also be used for this.
Gender Fluidity. Gender fluidity conveys a wider, more flexible range of gender expression, with interests and behaviors that may even change from day to day. Gender fluid children do not feel confined by restrictive boundaries of stereotypical expectations of girls or boys. In other words, a child may feel they are a girl some days and a boy on others, or possibly feel that neither term describes them accurately.
LGBT. Refers to Lesbian, Gay Bisexual and Transgender. Sometimes ‘Q’ or ‘QQ’ is added for Queer and Questioning. Also ‘I’ and ‘A’ are added for Intersex and Asexual or Agender. It is generally used to refer to the group of people who define themselves and gender or sexual non-conforming, non-normative or other than the ‘hetero-normative’.
MTF/FTM. MTF Refers to a Refers to a Male to Female Trans person. FTM Refers to a Female to Male.
Transition. Refers to the process of changing over to the other gender. There can be a ‘Medical Transition’ which may involve hormones and surgeries, and a ‘Social Transition’ which involves one’s presentation in the world – meaning looking like a boy or girl and having a male or female name, etc.
Tanner Scale. Refers to a five stage scale that measures the physical development for males and females. It measures the secondary sex characteristics such as size of genitals and breasts. It is typically used with transgender children to determine the timing of starting puberty blockers. This is often done about one year into ‘Tanner stage II’.
Passing. Refers to ‘passing as the new gender’. Meaning being seen as the new gender with there being no idea of having been the other gender.
Stealth. Means hiding one’s trans status after having transitioned. This used to be a preferred way to go, but now with more public acceptance of Transgenderism, young people often do not feel the need to ‘go stealth’.
SRS. Refers to Sexual Reassignment Surgery. This is also referred to as ‘GRS’ for ‘Gender Reassignment surgery’ or as ‘GCS’ for ‘Gender Confirmation Surgery’. Children DO NOT receive any kind of surgical intervention before the age of 16 or 18, depending on the laws where they live. Transgender children only go through social transitions until puberty, at which time medical transition may begin with the use of puberty-blocking hormones and later cross-sex hormones.
Sexual Orientation. Term that refers to being romantically or sexually attracted to people of a specific gender. Our sexual orientation and our gender identity are separate, distinct parts of our overall identity. Although a child may not yet be aware of their sexual orientation, they usually have a strong sense of their gender identity.